The Italian Martial Arts (1400-1650)

The “Martial Arts” are literally, the “Arts of Mars”, the Roman god of war, so it should be no surprise that Europe boasts a complex martial culture that extends back into antiquity and continues to this day. The Chicago Swordplay Guild connects with this tradition of Western martial arts by training in the historical fighting arts of Medieval and Renaissance Italy (1350 – 1650):

By the late Middle Ages, the Italian peninsula had become an ever-changing patchwork of petty kingdoms and free cities. There was no slow rebirth of town culture in northern Italy, because it had never truly perished. Instead the towns slowly re-established their dominance over the countryside and the urban nobility gained preeminence over their rural, land-holding brethren, led by a combination of military and administrative post, the “captain of the people” was often chosen from members of the old aristocracy, wealthy merchants, or from common-born mercenary captains. At first controlled by the dominant political party, the capitani grew increasingly powerful, and quickly became despots. In many cases, they dispensed with the new title and assumed the old hereditary titles of marquis, count or duke, whether they came from old noble families or were upstarts raising themselves up as the new nobility. Their wars to gain, hold, and influence other cities put the peninsula in a state of nearly continuous, small-scale warfare.

Desiring to establish their legitimacy, the despots sought to make their courts the envy of Europe. Those who embraced the new ideals of humanism became great patrons of art, science and learning. The lord acquired renown as a man of culture, learning and wealth, periodically gaining additional civil or military service from the courtier, while the courtier gained far more: stable financial support, prestige, and a chance to develop his work without having to fight against the pressure of daily life. It is a perfect summation of the late medieval Italian condition that the flourishing of ideas and artistic expression that became the Renaissance was built upon the bloody ambition of despotism.

All of these changes produced a culture in which members of a wide variety of social strata not only desired or required training in arms, but also had the means to acquire it. The professional fencing master or “master-at-arms” entered to fill the gap. Originating as a battlefield art, the practitioner had to be versed in a multitude of weapons including the sword, spear, and axe, in or out of armour, on foot or horseback, and against any number of opponents. As the Renaissance brought sweeping changes to European culture, so to did the Italian fencing traditions evolve and diverge, with a new focus on civilian swordplay. Eventually, a new, uniquely Italian weapon and fencing style —that of the elegant rapier— emerged and swept across Europe, influencing most of the continent for well over a century, and laying the theory of Italian fencing for the next three centuries.

 

buy viagra online
buy line viagra
discount viagra
cheap generic viagra uk
Buy viagra Denver
buy now levitra
buy viagra online discount
buy viagra online no prescription
shipping viagra to australia
Buy viagra Fresno
buy viagra pills
buy viagra cheapest
Buy viagra New Orleans
viagra without prescription
buy viagra prescription america
buy discounted viagra
buy viagra using paypal
buy cheap viagra online
cheap generic viagra substitute
cheap discount cialis
Buy viagra Buffalo
cialis no prescription
viagra and cialis
buy viagra cialis levitra
buy viagra online
buy viagra and cilas
Buy viagra Nashville
buying viagra online
natural viagra
homemade viagra
buy viagra online order generic viagra
non prescription viagra
india viagra cialis vicodin
Buy viagra Riverside
buy discount viagra viagra viagra
buy line viagra where
buy generic viagra
buy online order viagra
buy generic viagra online
Buy viagra Las Vegas
buy viagra now
cheap mexico viagra
buy in spain viagra
cheap generic viagra online
cheap discount viagra viagra
cheap deal viagra
buy viagra online web meds
cheap india viagra
buy viagra order viagra
buy price viagra
Buy viagra Indianapolis
Buy viagra Houston
cheap generic viagra substitutes
buy prescription viagra
price of viagra
buy discount cialis
Buy viagra Milwaukee
viagra for sale
buy viagra online in australia
free viagra
buy cheap tamiflu
buying viagra
buy online online viagra viagra
buy cymbalta
buy female viagra
buy real viagra
buy viagra per pill
viagra pfizer
Buy viagra Washington
cheap cialis overnight
buy cheap levitra
cheap generic india viagra
Buy viagra Pittsburgh
buy viagra
buy now viagra
cheap no prescription viagra
cheap prescription viagra without
Buy viagra Tacoma
cheap generic viagra overnight delivery
buy viagra online uk
cheap levitra online
Buy viagra Seattle
buy cialis now
buy 100 mg viagra
buy cheap cialis
buy real viagra online pharmacy
buy viagra prescription
cheap generic viagra from usa
cheap site viagra
Buy viagra Minneapolis
buy viagra online india
cheap viagra in uk
cheap viagra generic
buy viagra online and get prescription
buy online levitra cialis viagra
viagra uk
buy viagra other drug online
cheap pill viagra
buy viagra powered by phpbb
Buy viagra Columbus
Buy viagra El Paso
viagra professional
Buy viagra Newark
viagra uk cheap purchase buy
buy viagra cheaply
buy cialis from india
cialis coupons
cialis replacement
cheap generic viagra no prescription
buy viagra online online pharmacy
cialis overnight shipping
buy viagra pill online
viagra generic
generic viagra
alternative to viagra
cheap viagra india
buy generic viagra viagra
cheap soft tab viagra
cheap pharmaceutical viagra
buy viagra online paypal vipps
buy cheap viagra online
buy viagra online alternative viagra
over the counter viagra
Buy viagra Rome
cost of viagra
buy later now pay viagra
buy viagra cheapest best prices online
does watermelon have viagra effect
Buy viagra Long Beach
buy viagra online ireland
uk viagra sales
cheap man viagra
is viagra safe for women
buy viagra alternative
Buy viagra Tulsa
generic levitra
cheap discount viagra
female viagra
cheap cialis online
Buy viagra Tucson
cheap herbal viagra
buy generic viagra
buy internet viagra
buy viagra online at cheap price
cheap generic overnight viagra
buy internet viagra
buy viagra online at lowest price
cheap free viagra
buy duscount viagra online
ordering viagra onl
Buy viagra Arlington
accutane for sale online
Buy viagra Modesto
viagra super active
buy viagra usa
buy cheap viagra
buy viagra online now buy viagra
cheap generic 50 mg viagra
Buy viagra Portland
cheap viagra online canada
buy now online viagra
buy viagra pill
cheap pill pill sale viagra
generic cialis
buy prescription vaniqa viagra
buy no online prescription viagra
cheap generic online viagra
viagra oral
viagra and hearing loss
buy viagra online
cheap viagra in the uk
Buy viagra Baltimore
Buy viagra Detroit
buy viagra onlines
buy in online usa viagra
Buy viagra Philadelphia
cheap generic substitute viagra
buy real viagra pharmacy online
viagra and cialis cheap
buy levitra viagra online
buy discount viagra
buy sale viagra
cheap free price viagra
viagra vs cialis
cheapest uk supplier viagra
buy viagra online paypal
buy kamagra viagra
buy viagra online a href
cheap inexpensive viagra
buy online drug viagra pharmacy
buy viagra cialis
levitra online
cheap kamagra viagra
buy locally viagra
free viagra sample
cheap free viagra viagra
amazon viagra
buy online online pill viagra viagra
buy viagra online without prescription
buy low price viagra
buy now cialis
guaranteed cheapest viagra
Buy viagra Charlotte
buy viagra online in
cheap drug viagra
viagra pro online
purchase levitra online
buy cialis no prescription
Buy viagra Omaha
Buy viagra Albuquerque
Buy viagra Atlanta
viagra online uk
Viagra for sale
buy viagra online order
viagra coupons and discounts
buy viagra online in uk
cheap generic viagra
buy viagra over the counter us
buying viagra in uk
buy viagra 50mg
viagra free trial offer
buy cialis canada
cheap viagra fast shipping
lowest price viagra
Buy viagra Louisville
cheap pharmacy viagra
buy levitra now
cheap kamagra uk viagra
cheap generic viagra no script
Buy viagra Phoenix
buy viagra online in the uk
buy sildenafil viagra
buy viagra online get prescription
which is better cialis or viagra
cheap discount levitra online
how can i buy viagra online in canada
Buy viagra San Francisco
Buy viagra Kansas City
buy generic viagra buy
buy viagra online pharmacy
cipro 20
buy viagra overnight
buy viagra new york
where to buy viagra in beijing
Buy viagra Mesa
buy generic viagra usa
cheap viagra viagra
cheap sale viagra
Buy viagra Oakland
buy in uk viagra
viagra over the counter walgreens
key buy-viagra
buy cheap viagra online uk
cheap viagra without a prescription
cheap viagra canada
Buy viagra Oxnard
online overnight viagra
cheap meltabs viagra
cialis vs viagra
Buy viagra Austin
cheap generic viagra worcester imc
buy prescription viagra without
buy generic viagra pharmacy online
Buy viagra San Antonio